For almost a year, I have been criticizing both journals for lax oversight. In the case of Archives of Disease in Childhood, our ongoing discussion involves an unrelated study from members of the same team of investigators—a trial of the Lightning Process as a pediatric treatment for children with chronic fatigue syndrome. In the case of BMJ Open, the issue has been the school absence study and its lack of ethical review. That study helped trigger my interest in how the same REC letter was used to exempt other research from ethical review.
The EIA virus is mechanically transmitted from one horse to another by the bloodsucking horse flies, deer flies Tabanusstable flies Stomoxys spp.
Symptoms include recurrent fever, weight loss, an enlarged spleen, anemia, and swelling of the lower chest, abdominal wall, penile sheath, scrotum, and legs. Horse tires easily due Biology viral diseases a recurrent fever and anemia, may relapse to acute form even several years after the original attack.
The EIA virus is a slow acting virus of the lenti-retrovirus group. Retroviruses cause leukemia in cats, mice and cattle, arthritis, pneumonia and neurological diseases in small ruminants and acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS in humans.
These viruses localize and multiply in macrophages of many organs, especially in the spleen, liver, kidney, and lymph nodes, where they take over the cell and sit and wait to become activated. Upon activation, the cell reproduces more viruses, which bursts free from the cell to infect other cells.
This causes recurring cycles, in which the horse seems normal and then ill. There is no known treatment that can eliminate the virus from the body. To date there are no satisfactory vaccines for EIA. This test is used to detect the EIA antibody. The virus was isolated, characterized, and vaccines were produced in the s.
The viruses responsible for causing these diseases are members of a family of viruses called the alphavirus. The mosquito transmits the virus from small infected animals such as birds and rodents to horses. The warm, humid weather of the summer is good for mosquito breeding and this is when outbreaks are more common.
Transmission of EEE is not horse to human, but bird or rodent to human via the mosquito. Approximately two days after equine infection with encephalomyelitis, there is an infection and low-grade fever.
The first apparent signs are at four to five days. At that time, the animal generally has a fever and rapid heart rate, is showing signs of anorexia, depression, and variable other neurological signs.
As the illness progresses the brain stem and spinal cord are affected. Muscle weakness becomes apparent and there are behavioural changes and dementia. Notable symptoms include aggression, head pressing, wall leaning, compulsive circling, and blindness.
Other signs might include uncontrolled twitching of the eyeball, and facial muscle paralysis. As the disease progresses, a semi-comatose and convulsive state occurs.
Death usually follows two or three days later. If the animal survives, residual nervous system problems result. Encephalomyelitis vaccines are available for horses from several different companies.
They are packaged as single or combination vaccines.Biology Viral Diseases - Learn Biology in simple and easy steps starting from basic to advanced concepts with examples including Classification of Organisms, Cell Division, Virus, Bacteria, Fungi, The Roots, The Plant Stem, The Plant Leaf, The Flowers, The Fruit, Plant Diseases, The Blood, Blood Group, Human Brain, Skeleton, Endocrine .
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To acquire the knowledge of the economic importance of plants and animals. 2. To develop an understanding of the inter-. Mission. Identify enteric infections and HIV genotypes of national health priority.; Initiate appropriate multidisciplinary research (epidemiology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology, clinical medicine, immunology and molecular biology) to develop strategies for treatment, control and prevention of enteric infections and HIV/AIDS of national health priority.
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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other feelthefish.coms can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea..
Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in Organisms that are normal flora can occasionally cause disease, especially when defenses are disrupted.
Tropisms (attractions to certain tissues) determine which body sites microorganisms colonize. Normal flora is influenced by tropisms and many other factors (eg, diet, hygiene, sanitary conditions, air pollution).