Translated by William Popple Honoured Sir, Since you are pleased to inquire what are my thoughts about the mutual toleration of Christians in their different professions of religion, I must needs answer you freely that I esteem that toleration to be the chief characteristic mark of the true Church. For whatsoever some people boast of the antiquity of places and names, or of the pomp of their outward worship; others, of the reformation of their discipline; all, of the orthodoxy of their faith — for everyone is orthodox to himself — these things, and all others of this nature, are much rather marks of men striving for power and empire over one another than of the Church of Christ.
His father worked as an attorney and in local government, and he owned properties that produced a modest income. Locke received an extraordinarily diverse education from early childhood on. His formal schooling began in at the prestigious Westminster School for Boys.
Later, he studied a wide variety of literature, physical science, medicine, politics, and natural philosophy at Christ Church in Oxford, where he took up residence under a scholarship in Locke developed a particular interest in medicine and also studied the works of Descartes and Robert Boyle, the father of chemistry.
InLocke met and befriended Lord Ashley, a prominent statesman who had come to Oxford for medical treatment.
The two became fast friends, and Ashley invited Locke to join him in London at Exeter House as his personal physician. Locke agreed and left for London inwhere he lived for the next eight years. He worked closely with early colonists who left to found Carolina in the New World, assisting in the drafting and revision of the Fundamental Constitution the original frame of government for the Carolinas, before they were split into North and South.
For the next several years, Locke worked in various government posts and received a hands-on education in public policy and politics while traveling extensively. When Locke returned to England inhe found himself in the middle of political upheaval as Charles II struggled with Parliament for control.
The threat of arrest spurred Locke to flee to Holland to join his friend Lord Ashley, now the Earl of Shaftesbury, and other political exiles. He returned to England when it became safe to do so in He lived with friends at Oates, held various government posts and civil service jobs, and published his philosophical works until his death on October 28, Locke was born during the twenty-year English Civil War, which culminated in with the execution of Charles I and the dissolution of the House of Lords.
England then reinvented itself as a commonwealth where both royalty and an elected parliament would work together to govern the country. Inthe Restoration period, which would last until the early s, began.
He would almost completely reverse these views in later years. A crucial turning point in his philosophical development was a trip abroad to Cleves, where he observed a community of different religious sects living together in harmony. This experience may have challenged his ideas about the necessity of state-appointed religion and led to the later writing of his Letters Concerning Toleration Locke held on to his deep-seated Christianity throughout his life and was disappointed in the public response to his essay, The Reasonableness of Christianity He did not view his critique of Christianity as a condemnation, but religious leaders disagreed and banned the book.
After a three-year visit to France, Locke returned in to an England in crisis. Rumors of a plot to assassinate Charles II and install his Catholic brother, James, on the throne had caused upheaval in the government. An insurrection, supposedly led by Lord Ashley by now the Earl of Shaftesburymounted as it became clear that Charles II had no intention of reinstating Parliament.
Correctly targeted by Charles II as an influential Whig, Shaftesbury luckily survived a trial for treason and afterward fled to Holland.
It is unclear how active Locke was in the affair, but his close friendship with Shaftesbury made him appear dangerous to Charles II. Locke followed Shaftesbury to Holland in His attention to Descartes in earlier years had been limited to scientific works.
He stayed in France for just over three years, during which time he began several drafts of what would become his most famous work, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding During the unstable years before he too fled to Holland inLocke wrote his Two Treatises of Civil Government The Treatises are thought by some to be a direct reaction to the supposed Catholic plot and surrounding events.
These were eventually published as Some Thoughts Concerning Education in What I say concerning the mutual toleration of private persons differing from one another in religion, I understand also of particular churches which stand, as it were, in the same relation to each other as private persons among themselves: nor has any one of them any manner of jurisdiction over any other; no, not even when the civil magistrate (as it sometimes happens) comes to be of this or the other .
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Book I: Innate Notions John Locke Essay I John Locke i: Introduction Chapter i: Introduction 1.
Since it is the understanding that sets man above all other This was what ﬁrst started me on this Essay Concerning the Understanding.
I thought that the ﬁrst step towards an-. Revolution of –89, and his Letter Concerning Toleration () was written with a plain and easy urbanity, in contrast to the baroque eloquence of Hobbes. Locke was a scholar, physician, and man of affairs, well-experienced in politics and business.
A Letter Concerning Toleration. by John Locke. Translated by William Popple. Honoured Sir, Since you are pleased to inquire what are my thoughts about the mutual toleration of Christians in their different professions of religion, I must needs answer you freely that I esteem that toleration to be the chief characteristic mark of the true.
John Locke was born into a middle-class family on August 28, , in Somerset, England. have challenged his ideas about the necessity of state-appointed religion and led to the later writing of his Letters Concerning Toleration ().
Locke held on to his deep-seated Christianity throughout his life and An Essay Concerning Human. Aug 21, · In three “Letters Concerning Toleration” (), Locke suggested that governments should respect freedom of religion except when the dissenting belief was a threat to public order.